Integrated foot/ankle model
Simulations done on the ROBBY2 HARB model with a deformable
right foot/ankle finite element model demonstrate the benefit of
using modular modeling techniques. This mixed articulated
rigid and deformable model was subjected to the sled test
acceleration of a frontal impact under a simultaneously applied
intrusion of the foot well. The simulation results demonstrate
that expensive deformable parts can be successfully
replaced by cost-saving overall articulated rigid body models.
Fully articulated spine
Whereas the spinal columns of the initial versions of the ROBBY
models were articulated only at the extremities of the cervical
spine (2 joints) and of the lumbar spine (2 more joints), the fully
articulated spine is provided with alternating calibrated
translational (tension/compression/shear) and rotational
(flexion/extension/torsion) joints between each vertebra (12
translational and 12 rotational joints).
Military protection is a vast field of application for
Biomechanics. The effects of weapons on the military combatant,
helmet protection, chest impact, land mine protection, are examples
of potentially life-saving applications.
Ergonomics deals with the conditions under which people can
perform specified physical tasks. Ergonomics, in its simplest
expression, deals with the feasibility and comfort of humans
performing tasks of static load carrying. The ROBBY HARB model
has been successful in ergonomics studies performed
by ESI Group for the French military. In one of such studies, the
optimal muscle tensions of the human arm for an equilibrium
position under a simple static loading scenario was
Clinical applications range from prostheses to organ surgery,
including liver surgery, total knee
replacement, cartilage replacement, total hip
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